Mining operations and oil (oil products) spills response operations

Non-categorical failures of trunk lines and infield pipelines result in spills of commercial crude oil, watery crude oil or high-mineralized produced water. At that the spills of highly watered formation fluids with high content of mineral salts and oil significantly increase the influence of oil contamination on condition of soil cover with soil-inhabiting living organisms and plants.

Recultivation of soils contaminated as a result of emergency oil spill is carried out after realization of emergency response and restoration operations on immediate gathering and removal of oil (oil products).

Emergency rectification of the rupture is carried out immediately after obtaining information on oil spill. Operations are organized in accordance with “Instructions on emergency and damage response on trunk lines”, emergency oil spill response plan, corresponding ruling documents of oil-producing companies; these operations are executed by special response services.

At place of accident the measures for emergency gathering and removal of oil from soil surface are simultaneously taken.

Localization and removal of oil from soil surface is exercised using special equipment: earthmoving machines, excavators, dump trucks, pumping off equipment, oil recovery vessel (vacuum units, skimmers, vacuum pumps, etc.). Oil form the surface is gathered in containers or pumped into vacuum machines and then transported to the nearest floating oil storage location. In the event of great spills the pumping of oil into pipe line through specially prepared piping system equipped by the gate and check valve.

For gathering of spilled oil and with the purpose of interception of further spreading the nature and artificial sorbents are used as auxiliary means such as turfs, polymeric material, straw, sand.

To exclude the oil spill throughout the large areas and oil entering into water bodies, special accumulating pits (catch pots) and draining trenches for localization and gathering of oil are arranged on the way of oil streams and, if necessary, filtration barriers made of straw or sand (on flow line) are installed. Size of traps is determined by local conditions, width and intensity of oil stream. Installation of several accumulating pits on the way of oil stream is recommended.

To prevent the absorption of considerable amount of oil in the walls and bottom of the pit and in order to prevent the formation of in-soil streams the immediate pumping oil off the pit shall be organized. Pumped oil is transported to oil gathering centers and pumped into specially allotted tanks.         

In parallel with pumping oil off the accumulating pits the works on localization of the streams and elimination of quantity of oil absorbed into the soil are carried out. To this effect the sorbent (turf, sawdust, etc) is applied on the surface of oil around the surface of soil in an amount of not less than 0.5m3 of sorbent for 10m2 of oil slick. The oil-stained sorbent is left and further used for recultivation.

For localization of oil to the accumulating pits and draining trenches the ditch system should be additionally build up.

Filling up the accumulating pits and draining trenches with noncompletely pumped oil is expressly prohibited. Backfilling of dry pits is carried out after weathering of residual oil during 1-2 weeks.

Burning of oil directly on the surface of soil is prohibited.

Cleaning of the bog surface from residual oil products may be accomplished by its washing-out from the bog surface or burning out.

Where oil spillage is in sor-affected areas, all efforts should be focused on reliable localization of oil spillage within the least practical area and gathering of maximum possible amount of oil. In sor-affected areas the localization of spills is carried out by creation of large bunded area around the perimeter of the spill or digging the guiding trenches or channels towards to main receiving pit. Oil collection is carried out using pumping equipment and special-purpose oil skimmers. For more efficient oil skimming from hollows between hummocks and other hard-to-reach places the portable vacuum pumps are used.

One of the methods for careful collection of residual oil is the method of forced water washing of soil and vegetation cover from oil. This is achieved whether by complete water flooding of contaminated area for a short period of time or by periodic water spraying by sprinkler machines (motor pumps, forest fire vehicles). For washing out of oil the water from the nearest source is supplied under pressure using hydromonitor, water-sprinkler or another assistant equipment. Water with oil is collected in the catch pit arranged on the border of the spilled pumping product  from where it is pumped into excavation or closure embankment.

Where volume of spilled oil is small the efficient measure is the usage of sorbents. The important factor in oil spill response in sor-affected areas is a minimum movement of equipment and people throughout the recultivation area, especially through undestroyed areas of living vegetation.

In the below table there are data on applied by “Eco-Technics” LLP equipment for carrying out work on onshore oil spill response.

No.

Description of equipment

Country of production

1

Waste disposal unit “Forsage-2M”

Russia

2

Waste disposal unit (burning) “UZG-1MGZh”

Russia

3

Multiple function skimmer “UNU-1” completed with diesel hydraulic power unit, completed with hydraulic hoses (3 pcs by 20 l.m.), with package of discharging hoses (2 pcs by 10 l.m.)

Russia

4

Equipment for localization and elimination of oil spills with accessories and spare parts (sorbent booms)

Russia

5

Skimmer “Sprut-2” with diesel hydraulic power unit (capacity up to 30m3/h)

Russia

6

Sorbent products (booms, mats, plating)

Russia

7

Oil absorbent

Russia

8

Pump for transferring high viscosity fluids with large content of solids “DESMI DOP-160” completed with diesel hydraulic power unit, completed with hydraulic hoses (3 pcs by 20 l.m.), completed with discharging hoses (2 pcs by 10 l.m.)

Denmark

9

Electric submersible sludge pump “Bravo-40”

Sweden

10

Diesel hydraulic oil-pump station MNS-8/2 D

Russia

11

Minipower plant GEKO 9000

Turkey

12

Unit for pumping over and pumping out of miscellaneous fluids, motor pump “PTG208ST”

Russia

13

Digital wide range portable dose meter DRG-01T1

Russia

14

Halogen lights 1000W

Russia

15

Search lights FOS-3

Russia

16

Diesel generator “GVP 226”

Turkey

17

Diesel generator “GNT 33”

Turkey

18

Mill “FBN-1,5”

Russia

19

Plough “PNS-4-35”

Russia

20

Motor cultivator FPT-60

Russia

21

Harrow BDN-2400

Russia

22

Spray gun K-90

Russia

23

Dismountable tank RR-90

Russia

24

Waste collection tank 28m3

Russia

25

Waste collection tank 60m3

Russia

26

Measuring tank 50m3

Russia

27

Container 8m3

Russia

28

Container 2m3

Russia

29

Container 1m3

Russia